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ENEE408T Capstone Design Project: Accelerator Physics - Building the Maryland 5 MeV Cyclotron

Course Description: Cyclotrons are versatile accelerators whose use, because of an unsurpassed economic footprint, continues to expand in basic research, industry, medicine, and education. They also capture most of fundamental physics and technology of even the biggest particle accelerators, such as CERN’s LHC. This course provides students with a hands-on introduction to fundamental beam physics as well as the technology of cyclotrons, their design, commissioning, and operation. Students of this course will be designing and building a cyclotron. The level is intended for senior undergraduate and junior graduate students in electrical engineering and physics. Lectures will cover theoretical and practical aspects of cyclotrons, their design, and operation, including magnetic resonance [cyclotron] acceleration, ion sources, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) beam focusing, and beam extraction methods. We will cover relevant technology of cyclotron radio frequency and vacuum systems as well as discuss phenomena that limit energy and intensity, such as resonances and space charge. Generations of UMD student led teams will uniquely guide the design and oversee the construction of the UMD 19-Inch Educational Cyclotron.

Prerequisite(s): ENEE205 and ENEE380

Corequisite(s): ENEE381

Course Objectives:

  • Apply key concepts in E&M and basic analog circuits, introduced earlier in the electrical engineering curricula.
  • Analyze, design and optimize using theory presented in class. Use computer-aided design tools such as SIMION, Maxwell, HFSS, circuit simulators, Autodesk, Solidworks to confirm basic analytical predictions.
  • Understand how accelerator physics influences the design of various subsystems in a cyclotron.
  • After selecting an appropriate design problem, partition and distribute design tasks within each team.
  • Student groups will communicate to the class both mid-semester preliminary design problems as well as final projects results.

Topics Covered:

  • Introduction, history and motivation
  • Charged particles in electromagnetic fields
  • Magnet design, such as dipoles, quadrupoles, high order
  • Magnetic measurements using automated multi-dimensional field mappers
  • Orbit theory and analysis
    • Determining emittance εx, y, twiss parameters α, β, γ
    • Resonances
  • Particle acceleration
    • DC, RF, Induction
    • Phase stability
  • Focusing Schemes
    • Weak focusing
    • Alternating-Gradient (Strong) focusing
    • Azimuthally Varying Focusing (AVF)
  • Radio Frequency (RF) systems
  • Beam sources, ion sources and e-guns
  • Diagnostics and controls
  • Beam measurements, extraction and beam transport to target
  • Research and development in the field of accelerators
  • Applications
    • PBRT (Proton Beam Radiation Therapy)
    • HEP (High Energy Physics)
    • Industry
    • Material science
    • Dose calculations
  • Final presentation of projects